According to a study in Science, saffron is grown in the sun and requires lots of sunlight. When it comes to cost (and other factors), farmers get the worst deal: the sun burns the saffron, and farmers pay a lot more to grow it that way. What’s more, the sun is now much hotter than it was before the age of photography—by one temperature measurement, the sun is now 4 degrees Celsius hotter than it was in 1800.
Photo by Chris Mathew via Flickr
This increased heat might make saffron less effective at cutting down greenhouse gas emissions: It’s better for crops, but not much else. What we may learn now, however, is that while the sun might be better for agriculture, it’s not perfect at capturing carbon dioxide.
“We think the most important driver for reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a global agreement to limit global warming,” says University of Pennsylvania climate scientist John Reilly. “Reducing greenhouse gas emissions without limits is not worth pursuing, so it may be worth focusing on the technology that makes sense for limiting global warming. We want to understand these differences.”
A new set of maps from the Department of Transportation shows the estimated miles of rail on the San Francisco BART system as of 2012. It shows a huge bump in new rail, which in turn is likely a response to new rail being under construction in some places, or being retrofitted.
Here are the numbers as of 2012 [PDF]:
As of April 10, 2014, 5,749.67 miles of new rail had been installed across all 652 routes. As of September 2016, 497.33 miles of track had been installed in the 652 routes, with a total of 4,848 miles installed for the entire system—a total of 1,744.75 miles on the entire system.
The San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit Authority and Metropolitan Transportation Commission have estimated that the cost of new and retrofitting track and stations is $2.9 billion. This estimate includes additional tracks added during the first six months of construction in 2012, before the system was opened to the public.
These maps were released at the Federal Railroad Administration’s Rail System Performance Evaluation:
For a more in-depth look at the data here are additional maps from the Department of Transportation:
This is probably why some people are trying to kill off the BBC; the current incarnation of the broadcaster is still not in sync with the world-view that most people
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